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The working principle and structure of vacuum cleaner

Views: 7     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2019-12-13      Origin: Site


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Vacuum cleaners look complicated, but a traditional vacuum cleaner actually consists of only six basic components:

. An air inlet that may contain several cleaning accessories

.One vent

.An electric motor

.A fan

.A porous dust collecting bag

.A shell that can hold all other components


Plug in your vacuum cleaner and turn it on. Here's what happens:

Current control motor operation.The motor is attached to a fan, the fan blade has a certain Angle, like the aircraft propeller.


As the fan blades turn, they push air all the way to the vent.


When air particles are pushed forward, the density of particles in front of the fan increases and the air pressure increases, while the density of particles behind the fan decreases.


The pressure drop behind the fan is the same as the pressure drop in the straw when you suck a drink.The pressure behind the fan is lower than the pressure outside the vacuum cleaner, the ambient pressure.This creates suction, or partial vacuum, inside the vacuum cleaner.Therefore, the air outside the vacuum cleaner enters the vacuum cleaner automatically through the air inlet.


The suction power of a vacuum cleaner is determined by a number of factors.The strength of suction depends on the following factors:


1. Fan power: the higher the engine speed, the stronger the suction.


2. Resistance of air passage: if a large amount of debris accumulates in the dust collection bag, the resistance encountered during air discharge will increase.The increased drag causes each air particle to move more slowly.This is why the vacuum cleaner works better when you first replace the bag.


3. Size of the opening at the end of the air inlet: since the speed of the vacuum cleaner fan is constant, the amount of air passing through the vacuum cleaner per unit time is constant.The amount of air entering the vacuum every second is the same regardless of the size of the inlet.If the inlet size is smaller, each air particle moves faster.According to Bernoulli's principle, an increase in air velocity results in a decrease in pressure, which increases the suction of the inlet.So, narrow cleaner accessory can produce bigger suction, compared to the attachment with big opening more can absorb heavier dirt.


For heavy duty cleaning, many people use both wet and dry vacuums, which can suck in liquids and solids.The liquid wets paper or cotton filters, so the vacuum cleaner requires a different type of dusting system.The basic design is simple: as air passes through a larger space in the dust collector, it slows down, for the same reason that air travels faster through a narrow attachment.The decrease in velocity effectively reduces the adsorption capacity of the air, and droplets and heavier particles fall out of the air stream and into the bucket set up below.When vacuuming is complete, simply dump the contents of the bucket.

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